Role of phospholipase A2s and lipid mediators in secondary damage after spinal cord injury.
David S, Greenhalgh AD, López-Vales R
Inflammation is considered to be an important contributor to secondary damage after spinal cord injury (SCI). This secondary damage leads to further exacerbation of tissue loss and functional impairments. The immune responses that are triggered by injury are complex and are mediated by a variety of factors that have both detrimental and beneficial effects. In this review, we focus on the diverse effects of the phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) superfamily and the downstream pathways that generate a large number of bioactive lipid mediators, some of which have pro-inflammatory and demyelinating effects, whereas others have anti-inflammatory and pro-resolution properties. For each of these lipid mediators, we provide an overview followed by a discussion of their expression and role in SCI. Where appropriate, we have compared the latter with their role in other neurological conditions. The PLA(2) pathway provides a number of targets for therapeutic intervention for the treatment of SCI and other neurological conditions.