Autonomic Dysreflexia in Patients With Spinal Cord Injury: What the Radiologist Needs to Know.
Murray TE, Krassioukov AV, Pang EHT, Zwirewich CV, Chang SD
Autonomic dysreflexia (AD) is a potentially life-threatening condition that occurs in patients with cervical and high thoracic spinal cord injury (SCI). AD is not completely understood and has a high incidence that increases proportional to the level and severity of the SCI. The signs and symptoms can vary, but severe hypertension is a dominant feature and may be fatal. This condition can be precipitated by a wide range of triggers occurring below the level of the injury, several of which are common to both diagnostic and interventional radiology, such as manipulation or distention of the genitourinary or gastrointestinal tract, patient positioning, or the use of certain anesthetic techniques. There is little guidance in the radiology literature specific to risk stratification or the use of premedication in this population. The incidence and pathophysiology of AD are discussed, along with pragmatic tips to aid the radiologist in selecting patients who may require a higher level of care or anesthesiologist involvement, with instructions for the conservative and medical management of acute episodes of AD.
Awareness of AD is essential for all health care practitioners involved in the care of patients with SCI. A variety of procedures in the radiology department, both diagnostic and interventional, may precipitate AD. Planning, monitoring procedures, knowledge of the relevant pathophysiology and pharmacology, and communication with clinical colleagues are essential to ensure safe practice. Clinicians ordering procedures and radiologists selecting protocols for those procedures should identify at-risk patients before booking a procedure to ensure appropriate supervision and anesthesiology support. Education of radiologists, interventional nursing staff, and technical staff can assist in prevention, early recognition, and successful management of AD.