Cytokine pathways regulating glial and leukocyte function after spinal cord and peripheral nerve injury.
Bastien D, Lacroix S
Injury to the nervous system causes the almost immediate release of cytokines by glial cells and neurons. These cytokines orchestrate a complex array of responses leading to microgliosis, immune cell recruitment, astrogliosis, scarring, and the clearance of cellular debris, all steps that affect neuronal survival and repair. This review will focus on cytokines released after spinal cord and peripheral nerve injury and the primary signalling pathways triggered by these inflammatory mediators. Notably, the following cytokine families will be covered: IL-1, TNF, IL-6-like, TGF-β, and IL-10. Whether interfering with cytokine signalling could lead to novel therapies will also be discussed. Finally, the review will address whether manipulating the above-mentioned cytokine families and signalling pathways could exert distinct effects in the injured spinal cord versus peripheral nerve.