Asynchronous steady-state visual evoked potential based BCI control of a 2-DoF artificial upper limb.
Horki P, Neuper C, Pfurtscheller G, Müller-Putz G
A brain-computer interface (BCI) provides a direct connection between the human brain and a computer. One type of BCI can be realized using steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEPs), resulting from repetitive stimulation. The aim of this study was the realization of an asynchronous SSVEP-BCI, based on canonical correlation analysis, suitable for the control of a 2-degrees of freedom (DoF) hand and elbow neuroprosthesis. To determine whether this BCI is suitable for the control of 2-DoF neuroprosthetic devices, online experiments with a virtual and a robotic limb feedback were conducted with eight healthy subjects and one tetraplegic patient. All participants were able to control the artificial limbs with the BCI. In the online experiments, the positive predictive value (PPV) varied between 69% and 83% and the false negative rate (FNR) varied between 1% and 17%. The spinal cord injured patient achieved PPV and FNR values within one standard deviation of the mean for all healthy subjects.